Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

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Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of presentation and consolidation

Basis of Presentation and Consolidation

The condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) and include the Company’s accounts and those of its wholly owned Australian subsidiary, Kezar Life Sciences Australia Pty Ltd., which is a proprietary company limited by shares. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated upon consolidation.

The condensed consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2019 has been derived from the audited consolidated financial statements at that date but does not include all information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements included in the Annual Report.

Unaudited Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

Unaudited Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

The accompanying financial information as of March 31, 2020 is unaudited. The condensed consolidated financial statements included in this report reflect all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring adjustments) that our management considers necessary for the fair statement of the results of operations for the interim periods covered and of our financial condition at the date of the interim balance sheet. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with GAAP for interim financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and notes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. The results for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results for the entire year or any other interim period. The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements and related financial information should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and the related notes thereto included in our Annual Report.

Use of Estimates

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Significant items subject to such estimates and assumptions include the useful lives of fixed assets, stock-based compensation, and accrued research and development costs. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other market-specific relevant assumptions that management believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from those estimates.

We also anticipate that the COVID-19 pandemic will have an impact on the clinical and pre-clinical development timelines for our clinical and pre-clinical programs.  Estimates and assumptions about future events and their effects cannot be determined with certainty and therefore require the exercise of judgment. As of the date of issuance of these financial statements, the Company is not aware of any specific event or circumstance that would require the Company to update its estimates, assumptions and judgments or revise the carrying value of its assets or liabilities. These estimates may change as new events occur and additional information is obtained and are recognized in the consolidated financial statements as soon as they become known. Actual results could differ from those estimates and any such differences may be material to the Company’s financial statements.

Significant Risks and Uncertainties

Significant Risks and Uncertainties

With the global spread of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in the first quarter of 2020, we have implemented business continuity plans designed to address and mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business.  The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our business, our pre-clinical and clinical development and regulatory efforts, our corporate development objectives and the value of and market for our common stock, will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence at this time, such as the ultimate duration of the pandemic, travel restrictions, quarantines, social distancing and business closure requirements in the United States, Europe and other countries, and the effectiveness of actions taken globally to contain and treat the disease.  The global economic slowdown, the overall disruption of global healthcare systems and the other risks and uncertainties associated with the pandemic could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

In addition, we are subject to other challenges and risks specific to our business and our ability to execute on our strategy, as well as risks and uncertainties common to companies in the biotechnology industry with development operations, including, without limitation, risks and uncertainties associated with: obtaining regulatory feedback regarding our product candidates; delays or problems in the supply of our product candidates; loss of single source suppliers or their failure to comply with manufacturing regulations; identifying, acquiring or in-licensing additional technologies or product candidates; clinical development and the inherent uncertainty of clinical success; the challenges of protecting and enhancing our intellectual property rights; and complying with applicable regulatory requirements. In addition, to the extent the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business and results of operations, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks and uncertainties discussed above.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and Cash Equivalents

The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are stated at fair value.

Marketable Securities

Marketable Securities

All marketable securities have been classified as “available-for-sale” in accordance with the Company’s investment policy and cash management strategy. Short-term marketable securities mature within one-year from the balance sheet date. Investments in marketable securities are recorded at fair value, with any unrealized gains and losses reported within accumulated other comprehensive income as a separate component of stockholders’ deficit until realized or until a determination is made that an other-than-temporary decline in market value has occurred. If a credit loss does exist for available-for-sale debt securities and should be recognized, an allowance will be recorded rather than a write-down of the amortized cost basis. The amortized cost of debt securities is adjusted for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity. Such amortization and accretion, together with interest on securities, are included in interest income on the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations.

Leases

Leases

At lease commencement, the Company records a lease liability based on the present value of lease payments over the expected lease term. The Company calculates the present value of lease payments using the discount rate implicit in the lease, unless that rate cannot be readily determined. In that case, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate, which is the rate of interest that the Company would have to pay to borrow on a collateralized basis an amount equal to the lease payments over the expected lease term. The Company records a corresponding right-of-use (“ROU”) lease asset based on the lease liability, adjusted for any lease incentives received and any initial direct costs paid to the lessor prior to the lease commencement date.

After lease commencement, the Company measures its leases as follows: (i) the lease liability based on the present value of the remaining lease payments using the discount rate determined at lease commencement; and (ii) the ROU lease asset based on the remeasured lease liability, adjusted for any unamortized lease incentives received, any unamortized initial direct costs and the cumulative difference between rent expense and amounts paid under the lease agreement. Any lease incentives received and any initial direct costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over the expected lease term. Rent expense is recorded on a straight-line basis over the expected lease term.

The Company elected the short-term lease recognition exemption for all leases that qualify. This means, for those leases that qualify, the Company will not recognize ROU assets or lease liabilities, and this includes not recognizing ROU assets or lease liabilities for existing short-term leases of those assets in transition. The Company did not elect to apply the practical expedient to not separate lease and non-lease components for all of its leases.

Accounting Pronouncements Adopted in 2020

Accounting Pronouncements Adopted in 2020

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326) as well as subsequent amendments to the initial guidance under ASU 2018-19, ASU 2019-04 and ASU 2019-05 (collectively Topic 326). Topic 326 requires the measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets. Under the new guidance, an entity will recognize as an allowance its estimate of expected credit losses. The Company adopted the new standard using the modified retrospective approach as of January 1, 2020 and the adoption did not have a material impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, which modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements. The amendment of ASU No. 2018-13 removes disclosure requirements from Topic 820 in the areas of: (1) the amount of and reasons for transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy; (2) the policy for timing of transfers between levels; and (3) the valuation processes for Level 3 fair value measurements. The Company adopted the new standard as of January 1, 2020 and the adoption did not have a material impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements.

In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes: Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which removes certain exceptions to the general principles found in ASC740, Income Taxes. As part of the simplification, along with other exceptions, it removes the exception to the incremental approach for intraperiod tax allocation in the event of a loss from continuing operations and income or a gain from other items. The Company early adopted ASU 2019-20 as of January 1, 2020 and the adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.

Fair Value Measurements

Financial assets and liabilities are recorded at fair value. The carrying amount of certain financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, other current assets, accounts payable and accrued liabilities, approximate fair value due to their relatively short maturities. Assets and liabilities recorded at fair value on a recurring basis in the condensed consolidated balance sheets are categorized based upon the level of judgment associated with the inputs used to measure their fair values. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or an exit price that would be paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The authoritative guidance on fair value measurements establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy for disclosure of fair value measurements as follows:

Level 1: Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

Level 2: Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.

Level 3: Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.

Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires management to make judgments and consider factors specific to the asset or liability.

The Company applies fair value accounting for all financial assets and liabilities and nonfinancial assets and liabilities that are required to be recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements. The Company determines the fair value of Level 1 assets using quoted prices in active markets for identical assets. The Company reviews trading activity and pricing for Level 2 investments as of each measurement date. Level 2 inputs, which are obtained from various third-party data providers, represent quoted prices for similar assets in active markets and were derived from observable market data, or, if not directly observable, were derived from or corroborated by other observable market data.